[EZ-Cytox] Activation of ER Stress-Dependent miR-216b Has a Critical Role in Salvia miltiorrhiza Ethanol-Extract-Induced Apoptosis in U266 and U937 Cells
Although Salvia miltiorrhiza has been reported to have anti-cancer mechanisms, such as caspase activation, cell cycle arrest, an anti-angiogenesis effect, and Bcl-2 family regulation, its underlying mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has never been demonstrated. Thus, in this current study, ER stress-related apoptosis via miR-216b of the ethanol extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is elucidated for the first time. SM treatment inhibited the viability of U266 and U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, SM-exposed Raw264.7 cells were intact compared to U266 or U937 cells. Treatment with SM significantly elevated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The anti-proliferative effect of SM was reversed by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), compared to cells treated only with SM. Also, SM treatment increased the ER stress by elevation of phosphorylated activating transcription factor 4 (p-ATF4), phosphorylated eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (p-eIF2), and phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK) expression. Caspase-3 and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were cleaved and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) was activated by SM treatment. PARP cleavage and CHOP activation were attenuated by NAC pretreatment. Furthermore, SM increased the tumor suppressor, miR-216b, and suppressed its target, c-Jun. miR-216b inhibitor attenuated the apoptotic effect of SM. Taken together, SM treatment induced apoptosis through regulation of miR-216b and ROS/ER stress pathways. SM could be a potential drug for treatment of multiple myeloma and myeloid leukemia.