[EZ-LDH] Inhibitory Effects of Pectic Polysaccharide Isolated from Diospyros kaki Leaves on Tumor Cell Angiogenesis via VEGF and MMP-9 Regulation
Persimmon leaves are an attractive source of phytochemicals with potential health benefits. However, there are only a few reports on the chemical properties and biological activity of the polysaccharide fractions (PLE-I–III) of persimmon leaves. We evaluated the angiogenesis-inhibiting ability of pectic-polysaccharides. The molecular weight of PLEs was determined using a high-performance size-exclusion chromatography system. Tube formation assay of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was performed using Matrigel-coated 96-well plates. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), PI3K, Akt, and p38 phosphorylation levels were determined using Western blotting; VEGF and MMP-9 transcript levels were measured using SYBR Green qRT-PCR. PLE-I–III significantly inhibited HUVEC tube formation at 12.5 and 25 μg/mL. Among them, PLE-II showed the strongest anti-tube formation activity, and the mRNA/protein expression of angiogenesis-related factors (VEGF/MMP-9) was significantly reduced by PLE-II. PLE-II also suppressed the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and p38, JNK, and NF-κB p65 in HUVECs. These results suggest that the polysaccharide PLE-II isolated from persimmon leaves inhibited VEGF and MMP-9 expression in HUVECs via regulation of PI3K/AKT, p38, JNK, and NF-κB p65 signaling pathways.