[EZ-SOD Assay kit] Neuroprotective Effect of Cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) Isolated from the Jellyfish-Derived Fungus Aspergillus…
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) expression has been implicated in pathological states such as cancer, inflammation, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. We isolated natural PPAR agonists—eight 2,5-diketopiperazines—from the jellyfish-derived fungus Aspergillus flavus. Cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) was the most potent PPAR-γ activator among the eight 2,5-DKPs identified. Cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) activated PPAR-γ in Ac2F rat liver cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The neuroprotective effect of this partial PPAR-γ agonist was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the Hoechst 33342 staining assay in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings revealed that cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species. Rhodamine 123 staining and western blotting revealed that cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited the activation of mitochondria-related apoptotic proteins, such as caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) inhibited the activation and translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B. Thus, the partial PPAR-γ agonist cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) demonstrated potential neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration in SH-SY5Y cells.